Beta Testing

Ginkgo Biloba Extract

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Potential Risk IndexTM:


About:

Chloroquine is the prototype anti malarial drug, most widely used to treat all types of malaria except for disease caused by chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum . It is highly effective against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae , sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum and gametocytes of Plasmodium vivax . Being alkaline, the drug reaches high concentration within the food vacuoles of the parasite and raises its pH. It is found to induce rapid clumping of the pigment. Chloroquine inhibits the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. It may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids.

Chloroquine Phosphate is the phosphate salt of chloroquine , a quinoline compound with antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties. Chloroquine is the most widely used drug against malaria, except for those cases caused by chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Although the mechanism of action is not fully understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. Chloroquine may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids.

Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. This agent may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Chloroquine ‘s potential chemosensitizing and radiosensitizing activities in cancer may be related to its inhibition of autophagy, a cellular mechanism involving lysosomal degradation that minimizes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related to tumor reoxygenation and tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation.

Ginkgo biloba extract is one of four herbal preparations refunded by health insurance in Germany, on prescription by a medical doctor (AMR, 2013).

The experiments described in the IARC report have proven to be inconclusive.

Scientific References :
1. PubChem: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2719

Regulatory References :
1. WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) – Group 2B [2018]


Safety and Hazards (UN GHS):

1. Harmful if swallowed (H302)

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Catalepsy ( PubMed ID:16258634 )
3. Fatty Liver ( PubMed ID:28564578 )
4. Kidney Diseases ( PubMed ID:28564578 )
5. Paralysis ( PubMed ID:18762355 )

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Alzheimer Disease ( PubMed ID:12396081 )
2. Arrhythmias, Cardiac ( PubMed ID:11485048 )
3. Bone Diseases, Metabolic ( PubMed ID:19356626 )
4. Cardiomyopathies ( PubMed ID:11485048 )
5. Cognition Disorders ( PubMed ID:12396081 )
6. Learning Disorders ( PubMed ID:10672254 )
7. Memory Disorders ( PubMed ID:10672254 )
8. Nerve Degeneration ( PubMed ID:12396081 )
9. Neurotoxicity Syndromes ( PubMed ID:21827809 )
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