Beta Testing

Vitamin E

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Potential Risk IndexTM:


About:

Functions :
1. Antioxidant – Reduces oxidation to prevent the formation of free radicals which may be harmful to health
2. Dietary / Nutritional Supplement – Vitamins, minerals, proteins, fatty acids or probiotics which is eaten to improve nutritional intake

Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions.

As a food additive, Vitamin E is labeled with E number E306. Found in most foods, it is abundant in, amongest other things, whole grain cereals, corn and cottonseed oils, egg yolks, meat and milk.

It is approved to use as food additive in EU and generally recognized as safe food substance in US.

Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns.

Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol . Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body’s metabolism.

There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation.

Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen . Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.

dl-alpha-Tocopherol is a naturally-occurring form of vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. Considered essential for the stabilization of biological membranes (especially those with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids), d-alpha-Tocopherol is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, resulting in a decrease in prostaglandin production. Vitamin E also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription. (NCI04) d-Alpha-Tocopherol is a naturally-occurring form of vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. Considered essential for the stabilization of biological membranes (especially those with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids), d-alpha-Tocopherol is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, resulting in a decrease in prostaglandin production. Vitamin E also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription. (NCI04) Tocopherol is a class of vitamin E compounds naturally found in many different sources, such as oils, nuts, and vegetables. Tocopherols have antioxidant activity. Alpha-Tocopherol is the orally bioavailable alpha form of the naturally-occurring fat-soluble vitamin E, with potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. Upon administration, alpha-tocopherol neutralizes free radicals, thereby protecting tissues and organs from oxidative damage. Alpha-tocopherol gets incorporated into biological membranes, prevents protein oxidation and inhibits lipid peroxidation, thereby maintaining cell membrane integrity and protecting the cell against damage. In addition, alpha-tocopherol inhibits the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and PKC-mediated pathways. Alpha-tocopherol also modulates the expression of various genes, plays a key role in neurological function, inhibits platelet aggregation and enhances vasodilation. Compared with other forms of tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form and is the form that is preferentially absorbed and retained in the body.

Fun Facts :
-Can be used to prevent heart diseases and treat several diseases involving the brain and nervous system
-Makes bleeding disorders worse, Vitamin E should not be consumed before surgery
-Wheat Germ Oil and Sunflower Seeds are two of the highest dietary sources for Vitamin E

Scientific References :
1. PubChem: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/14985

Regulatory References :
1. EU Approved Food Additive [2018]

2. US FDA Food Additives Status List [2018]

3. US FDA Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) Food Substances [2017]


Safety and Hazards (UN GHS):

1. Causes skin irritation (H315)
2. May cause an allergic skin reaction (H317)
3. Causes serious eye irritation (H319)
4. May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life (H413)

Potential Health Concerns For:

1. Acute Kidney Injury ( PubMed ID:9763232 )
2. Anemia, Hemolytic ( PubMed ID:5094252 )
3. Anemia, Macrocytic ( PubMed ID:4214104 )
4. Angina Pectoris ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
5. Anorexia ( PubMed ID:946274 )
6. Anxiety Disorders ( PubMed ID:19472364 )
8. Bird Diseases ( PubMed ID:11913585 )
9. Calcinosis ( PubMed ID:11913585 )
10. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular ( PubMed ID:19229483 )
11. Central Nervous System Diseases ( PubMed ID:7946427 )
12. Cerebellar Diseases ( PubMed ID:9760855 )
13. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury ( PubMed ID:946274 )
14. Cholestasis ( PubMed ID:946274 )
15. Depressive Disorder, Major ( PubMed ID:20471444 )
16. Diabetic Nephropathies ( PubMed ID:7573492 )
17. Drug Eruptions ( PubMed ID:11792017 )
18. Eales disease ( PubMed ID:9068938 )
19. Enterocolitis, Necrotizing ( PubMed ID:7050877 )
20. Eosinophilia ( PubMed ID:11913585 )
21. Eye Diseases ( PubMed ID:14580610 )
22. Fatty Liver, Alcoholic ( PubMed ID:4735055 )
23. Heart Defects, Congenital ( PubMed ID:19187374 )
24. Heart Failure ( PubMed ID:15806987 )
25. Hemosiderosis ( PubMed ID:4214104 )
26. Hepatitis C ( PubMed ID:17420205 )
27. Hypertension ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
28. Intracranial Hemorrhages ( PubMed ID:21051774 )
29. Jaundice ( PubMed ID:4214104 )
30. Muscular Diseases ( PubMed ID:11913585 )
31. Muscular Dystrophies ( PubMed ID:753803 )
32. Myocardial Infarction ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
33. Myocardial Ischemia ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
34. Myocarditis ( PubMed ID:1926593 )
35. Nausea ( PubMed ID:946274 )
36. Necrosis ( PubMed ID:11834455 )
37. Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:15962462 )
38. Nervous System Diseases ( PubMed ID:15753152 )
39. Paresthesia ( PubMed ID:10453775 )
40. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases ( PubMed ID:7814959 )
41. Polyneuropathies ( PubMed ID:2838210 )
42. Pre-Eclampsia ( PubMed ID:8584011 )
43. Precancerous Conditions ( PubMed ID:9537283 )
44. Pulmonary Embolism ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
45. Renal Insufficiency, Chronic ( PubMed ID:8711172 )
46. Reticulocytosis ( PubMed ID:4214104 )
47. Retinal Hemorrhage ( PubMed ID:3547300 )
48. Short Bowel Syndrome ( PubMed ID:3226394 )
49. Splenomegaly ( PubMed ID:4214104 )
50. Thrombophlebitis ( PubMed ID:15562867 )
51. Urticaria ( PubMed ID:11792017 )
52. Vision Disorders ( PubMed ID:15753152 )

Potential Health Benefits For:

1. Acne Vulgaris ( PubMed ID:6455256 )
2. Adenocarcinoma ( PubMed ID:9200147 )
3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 ( PubMed ID:8967745 )
5. Arsenic Poisoning ( PubMed ID:16217243 )
6. Arteriosclerosis ( PubMed ID:10052017 )
7. Asthenozoospermia ( PubMed ID:15304303 )
8. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency ( PubMed ID:15681888 )
9. Atherosclerosis ( PubMed ID:12675867 )
10. Brain Diseases ( PubMed ID:20305954 )
11. Brain Infarction ( PubMed ID:14512146 )
12. Brain Ischemia ( PubMed ID:21051774 )
13. Breast Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:6413056 )
14. Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning ( PubMed ID:16050911 )
15. Cardiomegaly ( PubMed ID:17447016 )
16. Cardiovascular Abnormalities ( PubMed ID:20068362 )
17. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ( PubMed ID:3456598 )
18. Colorectal Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:9359698 )
19. Congenital Abnormalities ( PubMed ID:22209111 )
20. Craniofacial Abnormalities ( PubMed ID:19769572 )
21. Dermatitis, Contact ( PubMed ID:9675703 )
22. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental ( PubMed ID:12736908 )
23. Diabetic Retinopathy ( PubMed ID:18779489 )
24. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions ( PubMed ID:16418954 )
25. Dyslipidemias ( PubMed ID:16487912 )
26. Esophageal Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:22223226 )
27. Eyelid Diseases ( PubMed ID:11018306 )
28. Fatty Liver ( PubMed ID:23348005 )
29. Fetal Growth Retardation ( PubMed ID:11018306 )
30. Gastrointestinal Diseases ( PubMed ID:30003487 )
31. Glomerulonephritis ( PubMed ID:10353404 )
32. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental ( PubMed ID:7787149 )
33. Glucose Intolerance ( PubMed ID:30090575 )
34. Growth Disorders ( PubMed ID:20068362 )
35. HIV Infections ( PubMed ID:9764785 )
36. Headache ( PubMed ID:11841391 )
37. Heart Diseases ( PubMed ID:16418954 )
38. Hemolysis ( PubMed ID:12661892 )
39. Hernia, Diaphragmatic ( PubMed ID:16490937 )
40. Hot Flashes ( PubMed ID:14716179 )
41. Hypersensitivity ( PubMed ID:30626778 )
42. Hyperthyroidism ( PubMed ID:19914224 )
43. Hypothyroidism ( PubMed ID:12587721 )
44. Hypoxia ( PubMed ID:8552434 )
45. Infertility ( PubMed ID:21843797 )
46. Infertility, Male ( PubMed ID:11738524 )
47. Inflammation ( PubMed ID:18262176 )
48. Influenza, Human ( PubMed ID:16624496 )
49. Insulin Resistance ( PubMed ID:23348005 )
50. Kidney Calculi ( PubMed ID:8112761 )
51. Kidney Diseases ( PubMed ID:12488133 )
52. Kidney Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:9192818 )
53. Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute ( PubMed ID:9200147 )
54. Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental ( PubMed ID:16169303 )
55. Liver Diseases ( PubMed ID:18377885 )
56. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic ( PubMed ID:21086752 )
57. Lung Diseases ( PubMed ID:16863852 )
58. Lung Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:11062179 )
59. Melanosis ( PubMed ID:16217243 )
60. Micrognathism ( PubMed ID:11018306 )
61. Movement Disorders ( PubMed ID:10518183 )
62. Muscle Cramp ( PubMed ID:11427639 )
63. Muscle Weakness ( PubMed ID:572510 )
64. Muscular Atrophy ( PubMed ID:572510 )
65. Nerve Degeneration ( PubMed ID:15820619 )
66. Neural Tube Defects ( PubMed ID:11018306 )
67. Neurodegenerative Diseases ( PubMed ID:19615394 )
68. Neurotoxicity Syndromes ( PubMed ID:16622646 )
69. Oligospermia ( PubMed ID:15304303 )
70. Ophthalmoplegia ( PubMed ID:572510 )
71. Peripheral Vascular Diseases ( PubMed ID:20174656 )
72. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ( PubMed ID:26545973 )
73. Prostatic Neoplasms ( PubMed ID:15084515 )
74. Proteinuria ( PubMed ID:19149925 )
75. Pulmonary Fibrosis ( PubMed ID:18759078 )
76. Reflex, Abnormal ( PubMed ID:572510 )
77. Renal Insufficiency ( PubMed ID:12736908 )
78. Retinopathy of Prematurity ( PubMed ID:3754046 )
79. Skin Diseases ( PubMed ID:16217243 )
80. Stomach Ulcer ( PubMed ID:10749339 )
82. Testicular Diseases ( PubMed ID:29940330 )
83. Vitamin E Deficiency ( PubMed ID:572510 )
84. Weight Loss ( PubMed ID:17927767 )
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